The Lexical Structure of JavaScript

To understand the structure of JavaScript, you need to learn the following building blocks of it: Unicode, case sensitivity, semicolons, comments, white space, literals, identifiers, and reserved words.


You can use Unicode in JavaScript. So, you can use Emojis as variable names and write identifiers in any language, for example, Japanese or Chinese, with some rules. 

If you want to know whether your Unicode variable is acceptable or not, you can check it at

Case sensitivity

JavaScript is case-sensitive like many languages. So, a variable name written in a lower case format is different from the same variable name written in a camel case format.


JavaScript has a very C-like syntax, and you might see lots of code samples that feature semicolons at the end of each line.

Semicolons are not mandatory in JavaScript, and it does not have any problem that does not use them. Many developers, coming from languages that do not have semicolons, also started avoiding using them in JavaScript code.

It goes to personal preference and your programming behavior. If you are using those languages where semicolons are mandatory, you can use the same behavior for your JavaScript code.


Using comments helps us to understand code and its purpose. Each programming language has its own set of syntax when it comes to writing comments.

You can use two kinds of comments in JavaScript:

Single-line comments: Single-line comments begin with //. It will ignore all the things immediately after // syntax until the end of that line. It is also known as inline comments.

// Single-line comment

Multi-line comments: Multi-line comments begin with /* and end with */. You can write as many lines as you want in between these syntaxes.

/* Multi-line
Comment */

Usually, most developers use /* and */ syntax to writing multi-line block comments as JavaScript does not give any error. But the standard way to use multi-line comments in JavaScript is to use block comments as follows;

  1. Start with /** in a blank line.
  2. End with */ at the end line.
  3. Use * at the beginning of each line between the start and the end.
 * Multi-line comment as
 * block comments

White space

JavaScript does not consider white space meaningful like Python. You can add spaces and line breaks in any fashion.

In practice, you will most likely keep a well-defined style of indentation and adhere to what people commonly use.


We define as literal a value that is written in the source code, for example, a number, a string, a boolean, or also more advanced constructs, like Object Literals or Array Literals:


An identifier is a sequence of characters to identify a variable, a function, or an object. There are specific rules for identifiers as follows,

  • It should start with a letter (it could be any allowed character like emoji 😄 or Unicode words), the dollar signs $, or an underscore _.
  • It can contain digits.

Reserved words

You cannot use reserved JavaScript words as identifiers. Some of the reserve words are as follows,


These reserved words are JavaScript functions or variables, which are used for different operations using JavaScript.

Solved – error while loading shared libraries: Anydesk on Ubuntu 22.04 LTS

After successfully upgrading from Ubuntu 20.04 LTS to 22.04 LTS, most of the applications are working perfectly. But, some of the applications behave unusually. Such as, I tried to run the Anydesk application, but it doesn’t launch/start. when I checked the status service, the AnyDesk service was failed and the reason for failing is mentioned in the below error message,

anydesk: error while loading shared libraries: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory is a library used for text layout and rendering the text. Most of the work on Pango-1.0 was done using the GTK+ widget toolkit as a test platform.

So, I ran the command to install it using the apt as follows,

apt install libpangox-1.0-0

But, it gives me the following error,

Package libpangox-1.0-0 is not available, but is referred to by another package.
This may mean that the package is missing, has been obsoleted, or
is only available from another source

So, from that we can understand that, can’t be installed from apt or apt-get. We need to install it manually.

Use the following steps to install manually,

Step 1. Download the libpangox-1.0 package


Step2: Install the package using apt

sudo apt install ./libpangox-1.0-0_0.0.2-5.1_amd64.deb

Step3: Restart the AnyDesk service

sudo service anydesk restart

After these steps, if you check the AnyDesk service status, it will show active (running).

What is Middleware and how to create one in Laravel?

It’s best to envision middleware as a series of “layers” for HTTP requests that must pass through before they hit your application. Each layer can examine the request and even reject it entirely.

Middleware provides a convenient mechanism for inspecting and filtering HTTP requests entering your application. It’s best to envision middleware as a series of “layers” for HTTP requests that must pass through before they hit your application. Each layer can examine the request and even reject it entirely.

For example, Laravel includes a middleware that verifies the authenticity of the user of your application. If the user is not authenticated, the middleware will redirect the user to your application’s login screen. However, if the user is authenticated, the middleware will allow the request to proceed further into the application.

To perform different tasks, we can develop many middlewares besides authentication. For example, a logging middleware might log all incoming requests to your application. 

Laravel framework has included many middlewares, including middleware for authentication and CSRF protection. All of these middlewares are located in the app/Http/Middleware directory.

To create a middleware, we can use the following command,

php artisan make:middleware <middleware-name>

For example, if we want to create a middleware for checking transactions, we can run the following command,

php artisan make:middleware CheckTransaction

 After successful execution of the command, a middleware class will be created under the app/Http/Middleware directory.

In this class, we can define methods to check transactions. If the transaction is not completed, we can redirect the user back to the failed transaction page. However, on the successful transactions, we can allow users to proceed to the next page.

namespace App\Http\Middleware;
use Closure;
class CheckTransaction
     * Handle an incoming request.
     * @param  \Illuminate\Http\Request  $request
     * @param  \Closure  $next
     * @return mixed
    public function handle($request, Closure $next)
        if ($request->input('status') !== 'completed') {
            return redirect('transaction-failed');
        return $next($request);

As you can see, if the transaction status does not set to “completed”, the middleware will return an HTTP redirect to the client; otherwise, the request will be passed further into the application.

To pass the request deeper into the application (allowing the middleware to “pass”), you should call the $next callback with the $request.

Geocoding with Python – Convert any address to a geographic location

Learn how to work with geocoding APIs to receive location data from addresses and plot maps of your customer’s location.

Most of the time, datasets are incomplete and often require pre-processing to make them usable. Imagine, We have some datasets with only an address column without latitude and longitude columns, and we want to represent this data geographically. To do that, we need to add geographic information to these data. These cannot be possible manually. We have to create a script to convert all those addresses to geographic information – Latitude and Longitude – to map their locations, which is known as Geocoding.

Geocoding is the computational process of transforming a physical address description to a location on the Earth’s surface (spatial representation in numerical coordinates)


In this article, I will show you how to perform geocoding in Python with the help of Geopy library. Geopy has different Geocoding services that you can choose from, including Google Maps, ArcGIS, AzureMaps, Bing, etc. Some of them require API keys, while others can be accessed freely.

To perform geocoding, we need to install the following Geopy library using pip,

pip install geopy

Geocoding Single Address

In this example, we use Nominatim Geocoding service, which is built on top of OpenStreetMap data.

Let us Geocode a single address, the Taj Mahal in Agra, India.

locator = Nominatim(user_agent="myGeocoder")
location = locator.geocode("Taj Mahal, Agra, India")

First line of the above code will create locator that holds the Geocoding service, Nominatim. In second line, we call geocode method of the locator service and pass any address to it, in this example, the Taj Mahal address.

print("Latitude = {}, Longitude = {}".format(location.latitude, location.longitude))

Above line will print out the coordinates of the location we have created.

Latitude = 48.85614465, Longitude = 2.29782039332223

That’s it.

So, the complete code will look like this,

import geopy
from geopy.geocoders import Nominatim
from geopy.extra.rate_limiter import RateLimiter

locator = Nominatim(user_agent="myGeocoder")
geocode = RateLimiter(locator.geocode, min_delay_seconds=1)

address = "Taj Mahal, Agra, India"
location = locator.geocode(address)

print("Latitude = {}, Longitude = {}".format(location.latitude, location.longitude))

Now, try some different addresses of your own.

Internet Banking – The Pros And Cons

Over the last decade, millions of people in India have adopted online banking as their preferred method of conducting financial transactions. This way of banking has become quite popular because to the convenience with which one can monitor their account, make payments online, and transfer money between accounts. This is especially true for Indians who are always pressed for time to physically visit the bank.

Online banking also has several non-transactional functions that are very useful. Despite its convenience, however, this way of banking has a few drawbacks. These must be understood to secure your funds and avoid issues in the future.

Key Benefits of Internet Banking

Customers who choose internet banking over traditional branch office visits are eligible for different benefits.


Technology has made it extremely simple for both the bank and the customer to access many services online. Financial planning capabilities, functional budgeting and forecasting tools, loan calculators, investment analysis tools, and equity trading platforms are among the services provided. These are available on the bank’s website as simple applications. Furthermore, most banks offer online tax forms and tax preparation services.


Convinience is the most promising advantage that outweighs any shortcomings of internet banking. Making transactions and payments at the click of a button from the comfort of your own home or office is a convenience that no one wants to give up. Keeping track of your accounts via the internet is becoming faster and more convenient than going to the bank. Even non-transactional services, such as ordering cheque-books online, updating accounts, enquiring about interest rates on various financial products, and so on, are much easier to access via the internet.


In recent years, internet banking has taken a stride forward with the evolution of mobile internet banking. Internet banking provides the consumer with unrestricted mobility, allowing you to conduct financial transactions even when on the move.

Another significant advantage of internet banking is that it is environmentally friendly. It saves paper and reduces pollution by eliminating the need for individuals to travel physically and emitting no emissions.

Better Rates

Banks stand to benefit from the adoption of internet banking because it requires less physical effort on their part. The requirement to expand office space and hire more employees to deal with clients is reduced drastically. The banks benefit financially as a result of this. Also, a part of the savings can be passed on to consumers by higher deposit rates and lower lending rates. To encourage internet banking, most banks provide no-deposit or low-deposit accounts. They also have reduced penalties for taking money out of Fixed Deposits early.

Drawbacks of Internet Banking

However, the current trend of exclusively using the online mode has a few pitfalls. This may prove costly in the long run unless guarded against from the beginning.


Security is the most serious flaw in the internet banking method, and you must avoid it at all costs. Even though your account is protected by a variety of sophisticated encryption technologies, there is always the risk of hacking by criminal forces in the cyber world.

On the internet, hacker attacks, phishing, malware, and other forms of unauthorized behaviour are all too frequent. If you only use the internet for banking, identity theft is another major risk. To combat identity theft, most banks have made it essential to post scanned copies of approved checks online. When creating an account and before using online banking services, you should review the bank’s security rules and precautions.

Online banking is a significant move in the right direction as far as the convenience of the customer as well as the banker is concerned. But it must be applied with adequate precaution to avoid falling prey to unscrupulous elements scouring the internet.


Online transactions take a toll on the relationship with the banker which the traditional visit to the branch office used to foster. Personal relationships with the staff at the banks come in handy when requesting faster loan approvals or a special service which may no longer be available to the public. The manager has many discretionary powers. These include waiving penal interest or service fees. Additionally, personal contact also meant that the banker would provide essential financial advice and insights which are beneficial to the customer.

Complex Transactions

There are many complex transactions which cannot be sorted out unless there is a face to face discussion with the manager. This is not possible through internet banking. Solving specific issues and complaints requires a physical visit to the bank and cannot be achieved through the internet. Online communication is neither clear nor specific enough to help resolve many complex service issues. Certain services such as notarisation and bank signature guarantees cannot be accomplished online.